Chris Foote

  • Professor
  • Fisheries Ecologist
Education:
  • B.Sc. Zoology, University of Toronto (1977)
  • M.Sc. Zoology, University of Manitoba (1980)
  • Ph.D. Zoology, University of British Columbia (1988)
Biography

My work focuses on the mechanisms involved in population differentiation and speciation in fishes. In particular, I am interested in the role of sexual selection in the genetic differentiation, and possible sympatric speciation, of sockeye salmon and kokanee. I approach this work from a variety of directions, including behavioural ecology, population and quantitative genetics, physiology, and zoogeography of fishes. Wood & Foote (1996), Foote et al. (1999), Craig and Foote (2001) and Foote et al. (2004) are examples of this multi-directional approach.

Courses taught:

  • Aqua 171T/172T: Field Practicum
  • Aqua 191T/192T: Projects in Fish Husbandry
  • Aqua 371/372: Field Practicum
  • Aqua 391/392: Projects in Fish Husbandry
  • Fish 131: Biology of Fishes
  • Fish 132: Aquatic Habitats
  • FISH 321 Lake and Stream Ecosystems
  • FISH 322 Coastal and Estuarine Ecosystems
  • FISH 324 Ichthyology
Organizations and Affiations:
  • American Fisheries Society and the Animal Behaviour Society>
Pubcations:
  • Foote, C.J. 1988. Male mate choice dependent on male size in salmon. Behaviour 106: 63-80.
  • Foote, C.J. and P.A. Larkin. 1988. The role of male choice in the assortative mating of anadromous and non-anadromous sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Behaviour 106: 43-62.
  • Foote, C.J. 1988. Male mate choice in fishes: a review of the evidence in coho salmon. Anim. Behav. 36: 1228-1230.
  • Foote, C.J., C.C. Wood and R.W. Withler. 1989. Biochemical genetic comparison of sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and nonanadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 149-158.
  • Foote, C.J. 1989. Female mate preference in Pacific salmon. Anim. Behav. 38: 721-723.
  • Foote, C.J., C.C. Wood and R.W. Withler. 1989. Biochemical genetic comparison of sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and nonanadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 149-158.
  • Foote, C.J. 1990. An experimental comparison of male and female spawning territoriaty in a Pacific salmon. Behaviour 115: 283-314.
  • Wood, C.C. and C.J. Foote. 1990. Genetic differences in the early development and growth of sympatric sockeye salmon and kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and their hybrids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:2250-2260.
  • Liley, N.R., K.H. Olson and C.J. Foote. 1991. Reproductive pheromones in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and kokanee salmon, O. nerka. Fourth International Symposium on the Reproductive Physiology of Fishes. (eds. A.P. Scott, J.P. Sumpter, D.E. Kime and M.S. Rolfe) pp. 188-190. Sheffield, U.K.
  • Taylor, E.B. and C.J. Foote. 1991. Critical swimming velocities of juvenile sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and non-anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum). J. Fish Biol. 38: 407-419.
  • Foote, C.J., W.C. Clarke and J. Blackburn. 1991. Inhibition of smolting in precocious male chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Can. J. Zool. 69: 1848-1852.
  • Foote, C.J., C.C. Wood, W.C. Clarke and J. Blackburn. 1992. Circannual cycle of seawater adaptabity in Oncorhynchus nerka: Genetic differences in smoltifiction of sympatric sockeye salmon and kokanee. Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 99-109.
  • Foote, C.J., J.W. Clayton, C.C. Lindsey and R.A. Bodaly. 1992. Evolution of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in North America during the Pleistocene: Evidence for a Nahanni glacial refuge race in the northern cordillera region. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 760-768.
  • Liley, N.R., H.K. Olson, C.J. Foote and G. Van der Kraak. 1993. Endocrine changes associated with spawning behaviour in male kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Horm. Behav. 27: 470-487.
  • Foote, C.J., I. Mayer, C.C. Wood, W.C. Clarke and J. Blackburn. 1994. On the developmental pathway to non-anadromy in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Zool. 72: 397-405.
  • Quinn, T.P. and C.J. Foote. 1994. The effects of body size and sexual dimorphism on the reproductive behavior of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Anim. Behav. 48: 751-761.
  • Berg, O.K., C.J. Foote and T.P. Quinn. 1995. Fish age, nematode (Philonema oncorhynchi) infection, and the development of sexual dimorphism by the adult male sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in Western Alaska. Can. J. Zool. 73: 1999-2004.
  • Craig, K.C., C.J. Foote and C.C. Wood. 1996. Evidence for temperature-dependent sex determination in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 141-147.
  • Taylor, E.B., C.J. Foote and C.C. Wood. 1996. Molecular genetic evidence for parallel fe-history evolution within a Pacific salmon (sockeye salmon and kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka). Evolution 50: 401-416.
  • Wood, C.C. and C.J. Foote. 1996. Genetic differentiation of the sympatric anadromous and non-anadromous morphs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Evolution 50: 1265-1279.
  • Foote, C.J., G.S. Brown and C.C. Wood. 1997. Spawning success of males using alternative mating tactics in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 1785-1795.
  • Dittman, A., G.S. Brown and C.J. Foote. 1998. Chemosensory perception of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) eggs by two freshwater sculpin species (Genus Cottus). Can. J. Zool. 76: 406-413.
  • Wenburg, J.K., P. Bentzen and C.J. Foote. 1998. Microsatelte analysis of genetic population structure in an endangered salmonid: the coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki). Molecular Ecology 7: 733-749.
  • Quinn, T.P., E. Graynoth, C.C. Wood and C.J. Foote. 1998. Genotypic and phenotypic divergence of sockeye salmon in New Zealand from their ancestral British Columbia populations. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 127: 517-534.
  • Foote, C.J. and G.S. Brown. 1998. The ecological relationship between freshwater sculpin (genus Cottus) and beach spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Iamna Lake, Alaska. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 1524-1533.
  • Foote, C.J., K. Moore, K. Stenberg, K. Craig, J.K. Wenburg and C.C. Wood. 1999. Genetic differentiation in gill-raker number and length in sympatric anadromous and nonanadromous morphs of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Environ. Biol. Fishes 54: 263-274.
  • Wood, C.C., C.J. Foote and D.T. Rutherford. 1999. Ecological interactions between juveniles of reproductively isolated anadromous and non-anadromous morphs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) sharing the same nursery lake. Environ. Biol. Fishes 54: 161-173.
  • Hawkins, D.K. and C.J. Foote. 1999. Early survival and development of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), steelhead (O. mykiss) and reciprocal hybrids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 2097-2104.
  • Hamon, T., C.J. Foote and G.S. Brown. 1999. Use of female nest characteristics in the sexual behaviour of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). J. Fish Biol. 55: 459-471.
  • Swain, D.P. and C.J. Foote. 1999. Stocks and chameleons: the use of phenotypic variation in stock identification. Fisheries Research 43: 113-128.
  • Hamon, T. R. and C. J. Foote. 2000. Changes in mid-eye to hypural length and morphology in maturing sockeye salmon. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 20: 245-249.
  • Peterson, D.P. and C.J. Foote. 2000. Disturbance of small-stream habitat by spawning sockeye salmon in Alaska. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 129: 924-934.
  • Hamon, T.R. and C.J. Foote, R. Hilborn and D. Rogers. 2000. Selection on morphology of spawning wild sockeye salmon by a gill-net fishery. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 129: 1300-1315.
  • Craig, J.K. and C.J. Foote. 2001. Countergradient variation and secondary sexual color: phenotypic convergence promotes genetic divergence in carotenoid use between sympatric anadromous and nonanadromous morphs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Evolution 55: 380-391.
  • K. Ramstad, C. J. Foote, J. Olsen and D. Rogers. 2003. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of reproductive isolation between seasonal runs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bear Lake, Alaska. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 132: 997-1013.
  • Foote, C.J., G. S. Brown and C. W. Hawryshyn. 2004. Female colour and male choice in sockeye salmon; impcations for the phenotypic convergence of anadromous and non-anadromous morphs. Anim. Behav. 67:69-83.   Video depiction of sockeye salmon to red models
  • Swain, D. P., J. A. Hutchings and C. J. Foote. 2005.  Environmental versus genetic influences on identification characters. In: S. X. Cadrin, K. D. Friedland, and J. Waldman [eds], Stock Identification Methods, Elsevier Academic Press, New York.
  • Craig, J.K., C.J. Foote and C.C. Wood. 2005. Countergradient variation in carotenoid use between sympatric morphs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposes non-anadromous hybrids in the wild by their mismatched spawning colour.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84: 287-305.
  • Hamon, T. R., and C. J. Foote. 2005. Concurrent natural and sexual selection in wild male sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Evolution 59: 11-4-1108.
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